# Writing Makefiles for Modern Fortran

These notes show how to write portable Makefiles for large modern Fortran (2018 standard) programs.

tl;dr Put the Makefile and the dependency generator in the root of your project. Run make.

With a few restrictions, this solution permits:

• Fully automatic dependency generation.

• Parallelization using with make’s -j or -l command-line options.

• Using modules, submodules, and includes with arbitrary dependencies among them, even across different subdirectories in the project tree.

• Packing more than one module and submodule inside the same file.

• Nested includes. Includes that include modules and submodules.

• Works for all Fortran standards from F77 up to the latest.

Fortran submodules were introduced in the 2008 Fortran standard and only recently implemented in modern Fortran compilers (this is early 2019, gfortran has had them for a long time and ifort has only recently fixed important submodule-related bugs). The two ideas behind submodules are: i) separate the interface of a module from its implementation, and ii) prevent circular dependencies between modules.

Consider module one contained in source file one.f90:

module onemod
implicit none
contains
character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg
integer, intent(inout) :: n

msg = msg // "1"
if (n > 1) then
n = n - 1
end if
end module onemod


This is straightforward: Module onemod defines subroutine addone. When other parts of the program use onemod, the routine addone is available to them through host association. When one.f90 is compiled, it generates a file containing the interface of the module. In all Fortran compilers I have access to (sadly, the list is pretty short: gfortran and ifort), this interface file has the name of the module and extension .mod (onemod.mod in this case). The catch is that the onemod.mod file must be available to all the other subprograms that use that module. Therefore the module must be compiled before them.

Now consider what happens if we make a change to the module. Recompilation of the source changes the .mod file and all other files that use it must be recompiled as well. However, the change may affect the internals of the addone routine only and leave the interface unchanged, so there may be no need to recompile the dependant files. In large projects, this causes painful compilation cascades whenever you need to work on a module that is very basic to the program.

The second problem with modules are circular dependencies. Consider that we now have two modules with subroutines that call each other:

module onemod
implicit none
contains
character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg
integer, intent(inout) :: n

msg = msg // "1"
if (n > 1) then
n = n - 1
end if
end module onemod

module twomod
implicit none
contains
character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg
integer, intent(inout) :: n

msg = msg // "2"
if (n > 1) then
n = n - 1
end if
end module twomod


It is not possible to compile this code as-is. Trying to compile two.f90 fails (missing onemod.mod) and the same thing happens if you compile one.f90 (missing twomod.mod). However, this should not be the case because it is the implementation of both routines that use the other module, not the interface, so there is no reason why this should not be possible.

## Introducing submodules

To address these two issues, submodules were introduced in the 2008 Fortran standard. Submodules are designed to contain the implementation of the routines whose interface is in the module itself. For instance, in the example above, we would split one.f90 into two files: a module containing the interface (one.f90) and a submodule of that module containing the implementation of the addone routine (I tend to use @proc for the submodules, for no particular reason, so that would be one@proc.f90). The module is:

module onemod
implicit none
interface
character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg
integer, intent(inout) :: n
end interface
end module onemod


and the submodule:

submodule (twomod) twoproc
implicit none
contains
character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg
integer, intent(inout) :: n

msg = msg // "2"
if (n > 1) then
n = n - 1
end if
end submodule twoproc


Only the module file generates the .mod file necessary to compile all the dependencies and so changes to the implementation in the submodule do not trigger a compilation cascade. Furthermore, routines in the submodule can use whatever module is available as long as the parent module of the submodule is not used in its interface. In this case, the two submodule can use addone from the onemod module and likewise the one submodule can use addtwo from the twomod module.

How does the compilation of submodules work? In this example, compilation of the module file (one.f90) generates two files: the module interface onemod.mod and the submodule interface onemod.smod. As before, the .mod file is required to compile any code that uses the module. The .smod file is required to compile all submodules whose parent is onemod. Therefore, first we compile the modules:

gfortran -c one.f90
gfortran -c two.f90


which do not have any requirements because they do not use anyone else. On top of the object files, this generates the module interface files (onemod.mod and twomod.mod) and the submodule interface files (onemod.smod and twomod.smod). (Fun fact: onemod.mod and onemod.smod are the gzip packages that are exactly equal byte by byte, at least with gfortran.) Once we have these prerequisite files, we compile the children submodules:

gfortran -c one@proc.f90
gfortran -c two@proc.f90


And, if we have a main program file that looks like this:

program main
implicit none
character(len=:), allocatable :: msg
integer :: n

msg = "hello, world! "
n = 10
write (*,*) msg
end program main


then we can compile it and link it because its module prerequisite (onemod.mod) has already been generated:

gfortran -c main.f90
gfortran -o main main.o two.o two@proc.o one.o one@proc.o


To make matters worse, submodules can depend on other submodules, which makes writing the Makefile rules a bit tricky. Let us start with a simple example.

## A simple Makefile for a simple program

For now, let us make the simplifying assumption that file names and module/submodule names coincide, so we rename the modules names from onemod to one and from twomod to two. A simple Makefile that compiles this program begins with the usual things: a compiler, the program target and linking recipe, and the clean phony target.

.SUFFIXES:
FC=gfortran
COMPILE.f08 = $(FC)$(FCFLAGS) $(TARGET_ARCH) -c SOURCES=main.f90 one.f90 one@proc.f90 two.f90 two@proc.f90 main:$(subst .f90,.o,$(SOURCES))$(FC) -o $@$+

.PHONY: clean
clean:
-rm -f *.o *.mod *.smod main


The first line serves to deactivate all implicit rules. .mod files are implicitly understood by make to be modula-2 source files, which can occasionally lead to confusing errors when it tries to generate an object file from a .mod file using m2c.

The object, module, and submodule files are all created or updated by compiling the source. Depending on the compiler version, if the module or submodule file already exists its date may or may not change if the interface does not change. Therefore, to prevent any problems with make, we touch the target at the end of the rule to make sure its date is set correctly. Since we assumed that the module and submodule names are the same as the file name of the source, the compilation is easily handled by three pattern rules:

%.o %.mod %.smod: %.f90
$(COMPILE.f08) -o$*.o $< @touch$@


To complete the makefile, we need to establish the dependencies between objects, module, and submodule files. We do this by adding to the above recipe the pre-requisites discussed in the previous section. Specifically:

1. Creating the object file target.o requires having the .mod files of all the module it uses. If the source corresponds to a module, then the target.mod file also depends on the used .mod. Furthermore, if the source corresponds to a module or submodule that is a parent to another submodule, then the target.smod also depends on the .mod file of the used module. In our case, only three files use modules: main.f90 (uses one), one@proc.f90 (uses two), and two@proc.f90 (uses one), and none of them are modules or parents of submodules. Therefore, the additional rules are:
main.o: one.mod
one@proc.o: two.mod
two@proc.o: one.mod

2. Creating the target.o of a submodule depends on the .smod of the parent module or submodule. In addition, if the target submodule is itself a parent to another submodule, then the corresponding target.smod also depends on the .smod of the parent. In our case, we have two submodules: one@proc.f90 and two@proc.f90 whose parents are one.f90 and two.f90, respectively. None of the two submodules have children, therefore the additional prerequisites are simply:
one@proc.o: one.smod
two@proc.o: two.smod


Example package: example-01.tar.xz.

## Separating compilation from .mod and .smod generation

The previous Makefile works, but one thing that needs to be improved is how it handles parallelization. make has the option of using more than one thread to carry out the build if the dependency graph branches out. To do this, we use the command-line options -j or (more rarely) -l. The command:

make -j 2


runs make with at most two threads. Parallelized builds are important in large programs where a single build from scratch can from minutes to hours.

Although our last example works with make -j (i.e. it has no race conditions), it was not parallelizable. The most usual layout of a large fortran program is a sequence of module file dependencies that implement from complex to simple tasks. Module A implements the highest-level routines and depends on module B, module B on module C, C on D, and so on. With our previous Makefile, compiling a program laid out like this would require following this chain of modules backwards one by one, which would preclude any parallelization.

An elegant solution to this problem was proposed by Dr. Joost VandeVondele: separate the compilation step from the generation of the .mod and .smod files. The idea is to run make in two passes. In a first pass, we generate all the .mod and .smod files using a special compiler flag that generates the interfaces but not the object file. This flag is -fsyntax-only in gfortran and -syntax-only in ifort. In the second pass, we compile the object file from the source as usual. The first pass is quick and cheap, and it is the second pass that takes most of the time. The dependencies between different sources are handled in the first pass so that, when we start the second pass, all necessary .mod and .smod files have been generated and we can take full advantage of make’s parallelization.

To generate the .mod and .smod files in the first pass, we define the MAKEMOD.f08 variable, where we use the syntax-only flag:

MAKEMOD.f08 = $(FC)$(FCFLAGS) $(TARGET_ARCH) -fsyntax-only -c  Now we introduce the two rules: (slow) compilation and (fast) .mod and .smod file generation: %.o: %.f90$(COMPILE.f08) -o $*.o$(<:.mod=.f90)
@touch $@ %.smod %.mod: %.f90$(MAKEMOD.f08) $<  And the prerequisites are the same as before: main.o: one.mod one@proc.o: two.mod two@proc.o: one.mod one@proc.o: one.smod two@proc.o: two.smod  This approach, however, fails. The resulting Makefile does work in single-thread mode but when trying to use it with -j 2 it gives the following error: gfortran -fsyntax-only -c one.f90 gfortran -c -o one.o one.f90 f951: Fatal Error: Can't rename module file ‘one.mod0’ to ‘one.mod’: No such file or directory compilation terminated.  You can see that the error is the result of a race condition: make used the first-stage and the second-stage step on the same source file, and the two threads stepped on each other’s toes. ## Anchor files To solve this problem, we introduce the concept of an anchor file, with extension .anc. Each .f90 source file has a corresponding anchor file with the same name. The anchor file is an empty file whose sole purpose is to manage the dependencies in which the source file is involved. A given source file can generate zero, one or more .mod files and zero, one, or more .smod files. All these files are generated at the same time using the MAKEMOD command. To signify that all the .mod and .smod files have been generated correctly, the anchor file is touched right after MAKEMOD has finished: %.anc: %.f90$(MAKEMOD.f08) $< @touch$@


Then, the anchor file is made dependant on all module and submodule files generated by the source file with the same name:

one.anc: one.mod one.smod
two.anc: two.mod two.smod
one.mod one.smod two.mod two.smod:


Note the empty rules at the end to prevent Makefile from crashing with a “no rule to make target” error if the .mod or .smod files are missing. This rule and these dependencies ensure that if an anchor file is up to date, then so are all the .mod and .smod files generated by the corresponding source file. Therefore, a target that has any of these .mod or .smod files as dependencies can be satisfied as well by listing the associated anchor file as prerequisite. This is far simpler in practice because the only information we need to build these rules is which files compile first, instead of the particular .mod and .smod files that we need from them.

In our example, the dependency rules are transformed into:

main.anc: one.anc
one@proc.anc: two.anc
two@proc.anc: one.anc

one@proc.anc: one.anc
two@proc.anc: two.anc


The first block comes from use statements in main.f90, one@proc.f90, and two@proc.anc, which require the .mod file. The second block comes from the module-submodule relations, and refer to the use of the corresponding .smod files.

By using anchor-to-anchor dependency rules, we ensure that an up to date anchor file for a given source file implies that all .mod and .smod files necessary to compile it are present and current. Therefore, the compilation step can be handled by a simple pattern rule:

%.o: %.anc
$(COMPILE.f08) -o$*.o $(<:.anc=.f90) @touch$@


where we take advantage of the fact that the anchor file, object, and source file share the same name. Note that in the case of files that generate no .mod or .smod files, the syntax-only MAKEMOD command is still run in order to create the anchor file. This is a small price to pay for keeping things organized.

The complete Makefile is:

.SUFFIXES:

FC=gfortran
COMPILE.f08 = $(FC)$(FCFLAGS) $(TARGET_ARCH) -c MAKEMOD.f08 =$(FC) $(FCFLAGS)$(TARGET_ARCH) -fsyntax-only -c

SOURCES=main.f90 one.f90 one@proc.f90 two.f90 two@proc.f90

main: $(subst .f90,.o,$(SOURCES))
$(FC) -o$@ $+ .PHONY: clean clean: -rm -f *.o *.mod *.smod *.anc main %.anc: %.f90$(MAKEMOD.f08) $< @touch$@

%.o: %.anc
$(COMPILE.f08) -o$*.o $(<:.anc=.f90) @touch$@

main.anc: one.anc
one@proc.anc: two.anc
two@proc.anc: one.anc

one@proc.anc: one.anc
two@proc.anc: two.anc

one.anc: one.mod one.smod
two.anc: two.mod two.smod
one.mod one.smod two.mod two.smod:


Note that we have also modified the clean recipe to delete the anchor files.

There is one final consideration to make. When the syntax-only compilation of a file happens, the associated .mod and .smod files are generated. When the normal compilation happens, these files are also generated in addition to the object file. Therefore, there is the question of whether a recipe for generating an object file, which also writes .mod and .smod files, and a recipe for reading those same files that are being generated will enter a race condition if make is used in parallel mode. With gfortran, this is not a problem because it looks like the .mod and .smod files are not updated if they have been generated in a previous syntax-only compilation (which they always are). In ifort, this seems not to be the case. However, in ifort it is possible to separate the directory from where the .mod and .smod files are only read (-I) and the directory where they are read and written (-module). Setting the latter to a scratch directory in the compilation step should solve this problem. For now, we will use gfortran for simplicity but the final proposed Makefile takes this into account.

Example package: example-02.tar.xz.

## Include files

Anchor files can also be used to introduce dependencies based on Fortran’s INCLUDE keyword. At almost any point in a Fortran source an INCLUDE can be inserted:

include "file.inc"


This replaces the INCLUDE line with the contents of the referenced file.

The dependency rules in the Makefile for an included file can be straightforwardly implemented by making the anchor of the parent file depend on the included file:

parent.anc: included.inc


If the included file contains module or submodule definitions or use statements, then all the dependencies those would generate are assigned to the anchor file of the source where the file is included as if the included file were embedded in it (which, eventually, it is).

For instance, in our one@proc.f90 submodule we move the implementation of the addone subroutine to a one_addone.inc and replace the submodule with:

submodule (one) oneproc
implicit none
contains
end submodule oneproc


The Makefile would still have the prerequisite associated to the fact that the addone routine uses the two module:

one@proc.anc: two.anc


despite the USE statement now being in the included file. The only additional change to the Makefile would be adding:

one@proc.anc: one_addone.inc


to update the anchor file in case the included file changes.

Example package: example-03.tar.xz.

## Compiling across directories and hiding .mod files

If a project is large enough chances are the developers will want to keep parts of the source in different directories. Sometimes these directories generate a library or a program on their own, but in general individual modules living in different directories may use each other. Since recursive make has somewhat bad press and also has a few limitations regarding dependencies between directories, it is interesting to consider the case of building a project with source files dispersed across subdirectories.

To keep things simple, we will use our previous example and create two directories: one/ and two/. Directory one/ contains one.f90, one@proc.f90, and the include file one_addone.inc. Directory two/ contains two.f90 and two@proc.f90. The program block in the main.f90 file stays in the root directory.

The first question is: if we compile one of the files inside a subdirectory from the root of the directory tree, where will the generated files pop up? In the case of object files, they will be created where we tell the compiler via the -o option and they have the same name as the source, so that one is easy. The .mod and .smod files, however, are more tricky. Since module and submodule files must be unique in a single build (otherwise the build would fail) it makes sense to centralize all the .mod and .smod files in the same directory, preferably hidden from view to avoid the clutter. We define a variable for this location and make sure that the directory is created:

MODDIR := .mod
ifneq ($(MODDIR),)$(shell test -d $(MODDIR) || mkdir -p$(MODDIR))
FCFLAGS+= -J $(MODDIR) endif  This will create the .mod directory in the root if the MODDIR variable is defined and if it does not already exist. Compilers provide a flag to the location where the .mod and .smod files are both generated and read from. In gfortran, it is -J and in ifort it is -module. If MODDIR is not null the code above adds the -J compilation option to read and write the .mod and .smod files to MODDIR. Our clean recipe is no longer valid because the object files now live in different directories, so we need to update it: SOURCES:=main.f90 one/one.f90 one/one@proc.f90 two/two.f90 two/two@proc.f90 OBJECTS:=$(subst .f90,.o,$(SOURCES)) ANCHORS:=$(subst .f90,.anc,$(SOURCES)) main:$(OBJECTS)
$(FC) -o$@ $+ .PHONY: clean clean: -rm -rf *.mod *.smod$(OBJECTS) $(ANCHORS) main -test -d$(MODDIR) && rm -r $(MODDIR)  where we have made sure that the code still works if MODDIR is empty (and, in case you are wondering, MODDIR=. results in error because you cannot do rm -r .). Note that the location of the sources has been updated with the new directories. This ensures that the object files and anchor files are created in the same location as the source files, while the .mod and .smod files are created in MODDIR (or in the root of the tree, if no MODDIR is given). Finally, all prerequisites need to be updated accordingly. Anchor files have to have the corresponding directory prefix and .mod and .smod files need to be prefixed with $(MODDIR), but otherwise the dependency rules stay the same:

main.anc: one/one.anc
one/one@proc.anc: two/two.anc
two/two@proc.anc: one/one.anc

one/one@proc.anc: one/one.anc
two/two@proc.anc: two/two.anc

one/one.anc: $(MODDIR)/one.mod$(MODDIR)/one.smod
two/two.anc: $(MODDIR)/two.mod$(MODDIR)/two.smod
$(MODDIR)/one.mod$(MODDIR)/one.smod $(MODDIR)/two.mod$(MODDIR)/two.smod:



Example package: example-04.tar.xz.

## Handling several different file extensions

Fortran projects sometimes have a mixture of code from different sources. Some of it is written in Fortran 77, some using more recent standards. Some code may need to be preprocessed (e.g. files with extension .F90) and some may not. Our Makefile can be modified easily to deal with the variety.

For some desperately needed simplicity in our example, let us assume that the only two extensions we have are .f90 and .F90. The latter informs the compiler that the file needs to be preprocessed. We will rename two/two@proc.f90 and one/one.f90 to the corresponding .F90 versions and insert a #define preprocessor directive that does nothing in them:

#define DUMMY 1


In our Makefile, we define a variable with all the Fortran extensions the Makefile knows:

FORTEXT:=f90 F90


Naturally, the list can be expanded later on, and different rules can be easily associated to different extensions (e.g. fixed format for .f77 files and free format for .f90 files). To convert the list of source files to objects and anchors we define the source-to-extension function:

# $(call source-to-extension,source-file-list,new-extension) define source-to-extension$(strip \
$(foreach ext,$(FORTEXT),\
$(subst .$(ext),.$2,$(filter %.$(ext),$1))))
endef


The function replaces the known Fortran extensions with the new extension provided by the user in all files from the source file list argument. With this definition, the variables that contain the list of object and anchor files can be written as:

OBJECTS:=$(call source-to-extension,$(SOURCES),o)
ANCHORS:=$(call source-to-extension,$(SOURCES),anc)


Regarding the compilation rules, we want to create a pattern rule for each of the known extensions and the corresponding anchor files. we define the modsource-pattern-rule function for this and then use it on all known extensions:

# $(call modsource-pattern-rule,extension) define modsource-pattern-rule %.anc: %.$1
$$(MAKEMOD.f08)$$<
@touch $$@ endef (foreach ext,(FORTEXT),(eval (call modsource-pattern-rule,(ext))))  For the rule relating the objects and the anchor files, we need to identify the extension of the source file in order to know what to compile. We do this by using the wildcard function, and assuming that there is either a .f90 file or a .F90 file, but not both (because why would you?): %.o: %.anc (COMPILE.f08) (OUTPUT_OPTION) (wildcard (addprefix *.,(FORTEXT))) @touch @  The rest of the dependency rules do not involve the source files, and therefore remain unchanged. Example package: example-05.tar.xz. ## Multiple modules and submodules in the same file To add contrivance to contrivance, let us now consider an example where a single file defines more than one module or submodule. We combine the module two.f90, the submodule two@proc.F90, and a new module called twomore inside the same file, two/two_all.F90: !! from two.f90 module two implicit none interface recursive module subroutine addtwo(msg,n) character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg integer, intent(inout) :: n end subroutine addtwo end interface end module two !! from two@proc.F90 #define DUMMY 1 submodule (two) twoproc implicit none contains recursive module subroutine addtwo(msg,n) use one, only: addone character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg integer, intent(inout) :: n msg = msg // "2" if (n > 1) then n = n - 1 call addone(msg,n) end if end subroutine addtwo end submodule twoproc !! new module module twomore contains recursive subroutine addtwomore(msg,n) use one, only: addone character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg integer, intent(inout) :: n msg = msg // "2more" if (n > 1) then n = n - 1 call addone(msg,n) end if end subroutine addtwomore end module twomore  In order to have some non-trivial dependencies, let us add a call to the addtwomore routine from the new module in the main program: program main use one, only: addone use twomore, only: addtwomore implicit none character(len=:), allocatable :: msg integer :: n msg = "hello, world! " n = 10 call addone(msg,n) n = 2 call addtwomore(msg,n) write (*,*) msg end program main  Our Makefile needs to be modified to reflect these changes. First, the list of sources needs to be updated: SOURCES:=main.f90 one/one.f90 one/one@proc.f90 two/two_all.F90  and then the list of dependencies has to be changed as well. When the two_all.F90 file is compiled, it generates the object file (in the same directory), and .mod and .smod files corresponding to all the modules and submodules inside. These will be created inside (MODDIR), and it should all work seamlessly provided we update the dependencies correctly. Luckily, anchor files simplify this task significantly. First, we update the anchor file dependencies caused by USE statements: main.anc: one/one.anc main.anc: two/two_all.anc one/one@proc.anc: two/two_all.anc two/two_all.anc: one/one.anc  All references to the old files in two/ have been moved to two_all.anc and the USE in main.f90 makes its anchor dependent on two/two_all.inc. Next, the anchor files of submodules depend on the anchors of their parent modules: one/one@proc.anc: one/one.anc  We have removed the old two/two@proc.anc: two/two.anc dependency because now both parent module and submodule live in the same file and therefore it is up to the compiler not to mess up. Typically you avoid errors by defining the dependent modules and submodules after their parents within the file. Finally, we update the list of .mod and .smod files associated with each anchor file: one/one.anc: (MODDIR)/one.mod (MODDIR)/one.smod two/two_all.anc: (MODDIR)/two.mod (MODDIR)/two.smod (MODDIR)/twomore.mod (MODDIR)/one.mod (MODDIR)/one.smod (MODDIR)/two.mod (MODDIR)/two.smod (MODDIR)/twomore.mod:  The second rule reflects that the two_all.F90 generates multiple .smod and .mod files. The empty rule at the end is updated with the new targets as well. Example package: example-06.tar.xz. ## Submodules all the way down Submodules may have other submodules as parents. In that case, the syntax for the submodule definition is: SUBMODULE (ancestor:parent) name  where ancestor is the name of the ancestor module (the module from which all the children submodules ultimately depend) and parent is the name of the parent submodule. To compile the source containing the name submodule, we need the .mod file of the ancestor module and the .smod file of the parent submodule. The latter is built as ancestor@parent.smod. Let us add a file called four.f90 to our example. This file contains a submodule called foursmod whose parent is submodule twoproc of two.mod, defined in two/two_all.F90. The source code in the new file is: submodule (two:twoproc) foursmod implicit none contains recursive module subroutine addfour(msg,n) use one, only: addone character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg integer, intent(inout) :: n msg = msg // "4" if (n > 1) then n = n - 1 call addone(msg,n) end if end subroutine addfour end submodule foursmod  and then add the interface of the provided addfour routine to module two in two_all.F90: module two implicit none interface recursive module subroutine addtwo(msg,n) character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg integer, intent(inout) :: n end subroutine addtwo recursive module subroutine addfour(msg,n) character(len=:), allocatable, intent(inout) :: msg integer, intent(inout) :: n end subroutine addfour end interface end module two  To use the newly implemented routine, we add a call to addfour to the main program: program main use one, only: addone use two, only: addfour use twomore, only: addtwomore implicit none character(len=:), allocatable :: msg integer :: n msg = "hello, world! " n = 10 call addone(msg,n) n = 2 call addtwomore(msg,n) n = 2 call addfour(msg,n) write (*,*) msg end program main  The modifications required in the Makefile are pretty straightforward. First we add the new source file: SOURCES:=main.f90 one/one.f90 one/one@proc.f90 two/two_all.F90 four.f90  The submodule is not used directly, and main already depends on the anchor file for two_all.f90, which contains module two, so no changes need to be made there. However, compiling four.f90 requires the two.mod file and the two@twoproc.smod files, which are both generated with a syntax-only compilation of two/two_all.F90. Therefore, we need to add the following dependency between the anchors: four.anc: two/two_all.anc  and add the two@twoproc.smod to the list of files on which the anchor for two_all.F90 depends: two/two_all.anc: (MODDIR)/two.mod (MODDIR)/two.smod (MODDIR)/two@twoproc.smod (MODDIR)/twomore.mod (MODDIR)/one.mod (MODDIR)/one.smod (MODDIR)/two.mod (MODDIR)/two.smod (MODDIR)/two@twoproc.smod (MODDIR)/twomore.mod:  Example package: example-07.tar.xz. ## Automatic dependency generation We now have a fairly complete Makefile template that can handle some quite insane dependency trees. However, we have been ignoring the elephant in the room: How do we generate the dependency rules at the end of the Makefile? Last example had only four files and one include, and this spawned dozens of dependency relations between existing and generated files. Clearly, doing this by hand is unfeasible for any reasonably sized project, so an automatic tool is required. Ideally, we would want to use the compiler for this, since the compiler can parse Fortran source code. When building a C/C++ project, for instance, gcc and other compilers provide the -M command-line option to automatically build make-style dependency rules. The -M option is also available to gfortran due to it being part of the gcc bundle, and a similar option exists in ifort (-gen-dep). However, unlike with C code, using the -M option with Fortran code requires having the prerequisite .mod and .smod files in place beforehand, which in a way defeats the purpose of the flag. Therefore, we must use a dependency generator. In the case of Fortran90, there are already several options such as sfmakedepend and makedepf90. However, to my knowledge, as of 2019 none of them implement submodule dependency resolution completely. (makedepf90 seems to make some mention of submodules, though, so it may be in the works.) Still, writing our own dependency generator with AWK should not be that difficult, since we know the way in which modules, submodules, and includes relate to each other. Since we do not want to write a script that does full parsing of the source, there will be some limitations. It is also important to note that the Fortran standard does not make a recommendation regarding (or a even mention of) .mod and .smod files, so the following is valid only for gfortran and ifort, which are the two compilers I have access to. If you use a different Fortran compiler, it may do things differently and you will have to modify the generator accordingly. Our automatic dependency generator will be written in traditional AWK (without GNU extensions) and we will call it makedepf08.awk. The makedepf08.awk script runs over all files in SOURCES and returns the make-style dependency rules:  makedepf08.awk main.f90 one/one.f90 two/two.f90 ... two/two.anc:.mod/two.mod .mod/two.mod: [...]  In the following, we consider all types of dependency rules one by one. To keep our sanity, we will assume that all relevant lines (MODULE, SUBMODULE, USE) do not have continuations, or that the continuations occur after the important information (the name of the module, for instance) has been given already. ### Rule 1: the anchor of a source file depends on the mod files of its modules The first set of dependencies are those related to the generation of .mod files. A file file.f90 may contain several modules foo, bar,… We must make the anchor file for the source file.anc depend on all the module files created by it: foo.mod, bar.mod,… and then give empty rules for each of the .mod files to prevent errors when these files do not exist. According to the Fortran standard, the syntax for the MODULE statement (R1405) is simply: MODULE name  An initial MODULE keyword can appear in two other contexts: • As a MODULE PROCEDURE inside an interface block (R1506). • As a prefix to a FUNCTION or SUBROUTINE definition (R1527). We can read in all the module names inside a source file with: tolower(1) == "module" && tolower(0) !~ /^[^!]+(subroutine|function|procedure)[[:blank:]]+[^!]/{ name = tolower(2) sub(/!.*/,"",name) mod[name]=file }  and save them in the mod array. Note that care has been taken to handle comments and to avoid reading the two cases above as module definitions. The file variable is the name of the source file being processed without the extension: FNR==1{ file = FILENAME sub(/.(f90|F90)/,"",file) }  The set of dependency rules are written at the end of the run based on the information gathered from the sources: END{ for (i in mod){ printf("%s.anc:.mod/%s.mod\n",mod[i],i) printf(".mod/%s.mod:\n",i) } }  For instance, in our example the two/two_all.f90 file contains the modules two and twomore and one/one.f90 contains the module one:  makedepf08.awk *.f* */*.{f,F}* two/two_all.anc:.mod/twomore.mod .mod/twomore.mod: two/two_all.anc:.mod/two.mod .mod/two.mod: one/one.anc:.mod/one.mod .mod/one.mod:  ### Rule 2: the anchor of a source file depends on the smod file of those of its modules that are ancestors of a submodule If file.f90 contains module foo, compilation will always generate foo.mod but sometimes also foo.smod. The latter is required if a submodule has foo as its parent, and is automatically generated if the compiler reads a MODULE SUBROUTINE or MODULE FUNCTION inside an interface block. When this happens, the anchor file (file.anc) needs to depend on the foo.smod file as well as the .mod file from the previous rule. Since we do not have a proper parser, it is difficult to detect whether a MODULE SUBROUTINE or MODULE FUNCTION in the source file signals a child submodule (they may be inside a comment, for instance). What we do instead is read all the submodules and write down their ancestor module. The syntax of a submodule definition is (R1416 and ff.): SUBMODULE (ancestor[:parent]) name  where ancestor is the name of the ancestor module, parent is the name of the parent submodule, and name is the name of the new submodule. If parent is not present, then ancestor is also the parent. We read the existing submodules in our code with: tolower(1) == "submodule"{ gsub(/[[:blank:]]+/,"",0) gsub(/!.*/,"",0) n = split(tolower(0),arr,/[):(]/) name = arr[2]"@"arr[n] smod[name]=file ancestor[name] = arr[2] isancestor[ancestor[name]] = 1 }  First we remove all spaces and comments from the line and then we split it into fields using the (, ), and : characters. The name of the submodule is the last field. Submodules with the same name are allowed if their ancestors are different. Therefore, to avoid clashes we use ancestor@name as the name of the module, in the same way the compiler does. Following this, we write down some information we will need later on. The generating source file is stored in the smod[] array, same as we did in rule 1 with mod[] for modules. In addition, we write down the ancestor of the submodule in ancestor[] and whether a module file is ancestor of a submodule in isancestor[]. If a module is ancestor to a submodule, then necessarily its .smod file needs to be generated since there will be a submodule (perhaps different from the one we are reading) that will require it. Therefore, we add a new rule in the END block of our script that says that if a module is ancestor to any submodule, then its anchor depends on the corresponding .smod file: for (i in mod){ if ((i in isancestor) && isancestor[i]){ printf("%s.anc:.mod/%s.smod\n",mod[i],i) printf(".mod/%s.smod:\n",i) } }  Applying these rules to our example gives the following dependencies:  makedepf08.awk *.f* */*.{f,F}* two/two_all.anc:.mod/two.smod .mod/two.smod: one/one.anc:.mod/one.smod .mod/one.smod:  The two/two_all.F90 file contains the two module, which is parent and ancestor to the twoproc submodule in the same file and ancestor to the foursmod submodule in four.f90. The one module in one/one.F90 is ancestor to submodule proc in one/one@proc.f90. ### Rule 3: the anchor of a source file depends on the smod file of those of its submodules that are parents of a submodule Say the file.f90 source file contains module foo, which is parent and ancestor to submodule bar. Submodule baz is defined as: SUBMODULE (foo:bar) baz  and therefore has foo as its ancestor module and bar as its parent submodule. When the source for baz is compiled, we need foo.mod and foo@bar.smod. We now write the rules for generating the latter by making the anchor file of the containing source file depend on foo@bar.smod. To implement this rule, first we need to save the information of which submodule is the parent of which. We modify our submodule statement parser to do this: tolower(1) == "submodule"{ gsub(/[[:blank:]]+/,"",0) gsub(/!.*/,"",0) n = split(tolower(0),arr,/[):(]/) name = arr[2]"@"arr[n] smod[name]=file ancestor[name] = arr[2] isancestor[ancestor[name]] = 1 if (n >= 4){ parent[name] = arr[2]"@"arr[3] isparent[parent[name]] = 1 } }  The only change from the previous rule is the conditional at the end that says that four fields were present (i.e. if a colon was given) then this submodule has a parent submodule. The name of the parent submodule is recorded in the usual notation and the parent submodule is flagged as such. In the END block of the script, we make the anchor file of the parent submodule source depend on the corresponding .smod: for (i in smod){ if ((i in isparent) && isparent[i]){ printf("%s.anc:.mod/%s.smod\n",smod[i],i) printf(".mod/%s.smod:\n",i) } }  In our example, we have:  makedepf08.awk *.f* */*.{f,F}* two/two_all.anc:.mod/two@twoproc.smod .mod/two@twoproc.smod:  The foursmod submodule in four.f90 has the two module as ancestor and twoproc as submodule, and the latter lives in two/two_all.F90. Therefore, its anchor file must depend on two@twoproc.smod. ### Rule 4: the anchor of a source file depends on all its included files and their contents A source file.f90 may include any number of other files with the syntax: INCLUDE char-literal  where char-literal is a literal character string delimited by single or double quotes indicating the location of the included file. The .mod and .smod files may depend on the contents of this file, and therefore so must the anchor for the source file. In our script, first we record the information about the included files: tolower(1) == "include"{ incfile = tolower(0) sub(/^[[:blank:]]*include[[:blank:]]*.[[:blank:]]*/,"",incfile) sub(/[[:blank:]]*.[[:blank:]]*(!.*)?/,"",incfile) idx = index(tolower(0),incfile) incfile = substr(0,idx,length(incfile)) incfile = dirname(file)"/"incfile include[incfile] = file ARGV[ARGC++] = incfile }  The included file is extracted from the Fortran source. Note that we strip one character from each end with the regular expressions to eliminate the quotation marks and that we make sure to keep the capitalization of the file name because the filesystem is case-sensitive even if Fortran is not. The include file path is relative to the location of the source so, in order for make to find it, we need to prepend the directory where the source file lives. The following dirname function (created by Aleksey Cheusov) gives the directory part of a file given as an absolute or relative path: ## https://github.com/cheusov/runawk/blob/master/modules/dirname.awk function dirname(file){ if (!sub(/\/[^\/]*\/?/,"",file)) return "." else if (file != "") return file else return "/" }  The information about the included file names is saved to include[], which is used in the new rule at the end of the script: for (i in include){ printf("%s.anc:%s\n",include[i],i) }  The last thing to note is that we added the included file to the ARGV list and incremented ARGC. This will make our script also process the included file, in case it contains more USE statements, module or submodule definitions, or other included files. If this is the case, then the anchor file must not be associated to the included file but to the original source file that did the inclusion, and this needs to happen regardless of how many nested includes there are. Therefore, we need to modify how the file name is computed when a new source file begins being processed: FNR==1{ if ((FILENAME in include) && include[FILENAME]) file = include[FILENAME] else{ file = FILENAME sub(/.(f90|F90)/,"",file) } }  If the new file has not been included anywhere, then we treat it normally. If it has, then the source file (and therefore the corresponding anchor file) is that of the parent file. In our example, this rule gives:  makedepf08.awk *.f* */*.{f,F}* one/one@proc.anc:one/one_addone.inc  There is only one included file, in one/one@proc.f90. The included file uses the two module, so when it is processed the set of rules in the following section (rule 5) generate: one/one@proc.anc:two/two_all.anc  as they should. With this we are done with the dependencies of the anchor files have with generated and included files. Now, we need to relate the anchor files to each other according to the order in which the source files need to be compiled. ### Rule 5: the anchor of a source file depends on the anchors of all the non-intrinsic modules it uses The USE statement in Fortran is (R1409 and ff.): USE [[,nature] ::] name ,...  where nature can be INTRINSIC or NON_INTRINSIC and the ellipsis after the comma may be a rename list or an ONLY list. From within the script we have no way of knowing whether a used module is intrinsic or not, so what we do is we make a note of the module name in the USE statement and then handle it in the END block, once we have the list of known modules: tolower(1) == "use"{ name = tolower(0) sub(/^[[:blank:]]*use[[:blank:]]*/,"",name) sub(/^(.*::)?[[:blank:]]*/,"",name) sub(/[[:blank:]]*((,|!).*)?/,"",name) usedmod[name]++ fileuse[usedmod[name],name] = file }  The first few lines strip the Fortran line down to the module name. Then this name is added to the usedmod[] array, which counts the number of times a given module has been used. The fileuse[i,j] array gives the source file that uses module j for the ith time. The rules at the END are: split("", filuniq, ":") for (i in usedmod){ if ((i in mod) && mod[i]){ for (j=1;j<=usedmod[i];j++){ if (!filuniq[fileuse[j,i],mod[i]] && fileuse[j,i] != mod[i]){ filuniq[fileuse[j,i],mod[i]] = 1 printf("%s.anc:%s.anc\n",fileuse[j,i],mod[i]) } } } }  We first run over all modules that have been used. If a used module is not in the database of known modules (mod[]), then we assume it is intrinsic or external. Either way, we do not need to generate a rule for it. For a given module i, we then run over all source files that use it and write the corresponding relation between the anchors. The conditional in the inner loop makes sure that: • A use statement to a module within the same source file does not generate a circular dependence (which would work but cause an ugly warning). • Rules are not repeated. To do this we keep track of which rules we have already written using the local filuniq array. This is only to keep things tidy and to avoid the most obvious rule repetitions. In our example, this rule generates:  makedepf08.awk *.f* */*.{f,F}* main.anc:two/two_all.anc one/one@proc.anc:two/two_all.anc four.anc:one/one.anc main.anc:one/one.anc two/two_all.anc:one/one.anc  that gives the mapping of all modules uses in the program in terms of anchor files. ### Rule 6: submodule anchor files depend on their ancestor’s anchor files To compile a file containing a submodule, we need to have the .mod file of the ancestor module. Therefore, the anchor file of the submodule source depends on the anchor file of the ancestor module source. We have all the information in hand and we only need to write the entry in the END block: for (i in smod){ if ((ancestor[i] in mod) && mod[ancestor[i]] && (smod[i] != mod[ancestor[i]])){ printf("%s.anc:%s.anc\n",smod[i],mod[ancestor[i]]); } }  All submodules will generate one of these rules, since they all have one ancestor module. The only cases when the rule will not be generated is when: • The ancestor module is unknown (good luck with that one… we’ll let the user handle the fallout, though). • The submodule and the ancestor module are in the same file (would create a circular dependence). In our example,  makedepf08.awk *.f* */*.{f,F}* one/one@proc.anc:one/one.anc four.anc:two/two_all.anc  Submodule oneproc in one/one@proc.f90 has module one in one/one.F90 as ancestor. Submodule foursmod in four.f90 has module two from two/two_all.F90 as ancestor. ### Rule 7: submodule anchor files depend on their parent’s anchor files To compile a source file containing a submodule, the .smod file of the parent module or submodule must be available. Therefore, the anchor file of the submodule being compiled depends on the anchor file of its parent. Since we have the parent information, this can be implemented easily in the END block: for (i in smod){ if ((i in parent) && parent[i] && smod[i] != smod[parent[i]]){ printf("%s.anc:%s.anc\n",smod[i],smod[parent[i]]); } }  The conditional makes sure that the rule is generated if: • The parent submodule exists. If the parent and the ancestor of the submodule are the same, then this is already covered by rule 6, which is why the ancestor module was not added to parent[] or flagged as isparent[]. • The submodule source file and the parent’s source file are not the same, to avoid circular dependencies. Applying this code to our example, we have: four.anc:two/two_all.anc  The foursmod submodule in four.f90 has module two as ancestor and module twoproc as parent. The latter lives in two/two_all.F90. ### Putting everything together Combining all the bits of code, we now have a functional automatic dependency generator capable of handling the gnarliest of Fortran sources, with just about 100 lines of AWK code. Here is the script in its entirety: ## Copyright (c) 2019 alberto Otero de la Roza <aoterodelaroza@gmail.com> ## This file is frere software; distributed under GNU/GPL version 3. #! /usr/bin/env -S awk --traditional -f function dirname(file){ ## function dirname by Aleksey Cheusov ## https://github.com/cheusov/runawk/blob/master/modules/dirname.awk if (!sub(/\/[^\/]*\/?/,"",file)) return "." else if (file != "") return file else return "/" } FNR==1{ if ((FILENAME in include) && include[FILENAME]) file = include[FILENAME] else{ file = FILENAME sub(/.(f|F|fpp|FPP|for|FOR|ftn|FTN|f90|F90|f95|F95|f03|F03|f08|F08)/,"",file) } } tolower(1) == "module" && tolower(0) !~ /^[^!]+(subroutine|function|procedure)[[:blank:]]+[^!]/{ name = tolower(2) sub(/!.*/,"",name) mod[name]=file } tolower(1) == "submodule"{ gsub(/[[:blank:]]+/,"",0) gsub(/!.*/,"",0) n = split(tolower(0),arr,/[):(]/) name = arr[2]"@"arr[n] smod[name]=file ancestor[name] = arr[2] isancestor[ancestor[name]] = 1 if (n >= 4){ parent[name] = arr[2]"@"arr[3] isparent[parent[name]] = 1 } } tolower(1) == "include"{ incfile = tolower(0) sub(/^[[:blank:]]*include[[:blank:]]*.[[:blank:]]*/,"",incfile) sub(/[[:blank:]]*.[[:blank:]]*(!.*)?/,"",incfile) idx = index(tolower(0),incfile) incfile = substr(0,idx,length(incfile)) incfile = dirname(file)"/"incfile include[incfile] = file ARGV[ARGC++] = incfile } tolower(1) == "use"{ name = tolower(0) sub(/^[[:blank:]]*use[[:blank:]]*/,"",name) sub(/^(.*::)?[[:blank:]]*/,"",name) sub(/[[:blank:]]*((,|!).*)?/,"",name) usedmod[name]++ fileuse[usedmod[name],name] = file } END{ for (i in mod){ ## Rule 1: the anchor of a source file depends on the mod files of its modules printf("%s.anc:.mod/%s.mod\n",mod[i],i) printf(".mod/%s.mod:\n",i) if ((i in isancestor) && isancestor[i]){ ## Rule 2: the anchor of a source file depends on the smod file of those of its modules that are ancestors of a submodule printf("%s.anc:.mod/%s.smod\n",mod[i],i) printf(".mod/%s.smod:\n",i) } } for (i in smod){ ## Rule 3: the anchor of a source file depends on the smod file of those of its submodules that are parents of a submodule if ((i in isparent) && isparent[i]){ printf("%s.anc:.mod/%s.smod\n",smod[i],i) printf(".mod/%s.smod:\n",i) } ## Rule 6: submodule anchor files depend on their ancestor's anchor files if ((ancestor[i] in mod) && mod[ancestor[i]] && (smod[i] != mod[ancestor[i]])) printf("%s.anc:%s.anc\n",smod[i],mod[ancestor[i]]); ## Rule 7: submodule anchor files depend on their parent's anchor files if ((i in parent) && parent[i] && smod[i] != smod[parent[i]]) printf("%s.anc:%s.anc\n",smod[i],smod[parent[i]]); } ## Rule 5: the anchor of a source file depends on the anchor of all the non-intrinsic modules it uses split("", filuniq, ":") for (i in usedmod){ if ((i in mod) && mod[i]){ for (j=1;j<=usedmod[i];j++){ if (!filuniq[fileuse[j,i],mod[i]] && fileuse[j,i] != mod[i]){ filuniq[fileuse[j,i],mod[i]] = 1 printf("%s.anc:%s.anc\n",fileuse[j,i],mod[i]) } } } } ## Rule 4: the anchor of a source file depends on all its included files and their contents for (i in include) printf("%s.anc:%s\n",include[i],i) }  Applying it to our example gives the whole list of dependency rules in one go:  makedepf08.awk *.f* */*.{f,F}* two/two_all.anc:.mod/twomore.mod .mod/twomore.mod: two/two_all.anc:.mod/two.mod .mod/two.mod: two/two_all.anc:.mod/two.smod .mod/two.smod: one/one.anc:.mod/one.mod .mod/one.mod: one/one.anc:.mod/one.smod .mod/one.smod: two/two_all.anc:.mod/two@twoproc.smod .mod/two@twoproc.smod: one/one@proc.anc:one/one.anc four.anc:two/two_all.anc four.anc:two/two_all.anc main.anc:two/two_all.anc one/one@proc.anc:two/two_all.anc four.anc:one/one.anc main.anc:one/one.anc two/two_all.anc:one/one.anc one/one@proc.anc:one/one_addone.inc  Note that some of them are repeated. This is not a problem but, since we have taken care of writing a single rule for each target/prerequisite pair and the order of the rules is irrelevant in this case, you can as easily sort and uniq them to get a tidier list. Example package: example-08.tar.xz. ## A Makefile for all occasions Our combination of Makefile and automatic dependency generation script is quite general but has the following limitations: • No continuations are allowed in USE, MODULE, SUBMODULE, and INCLUDE lines, except when the continuation occurs after the part that contains the information we need. For instance, you could have: use amodule, only: bleh1, bleh2, & bleh3  and this would still work because everything after the comma is discarded. For the same reason, continued lines that start with “use”, “module”, “submodule”, or “include” are best avoided. • Two files with the same name and different Fortran extensions in the same directory are not allowed. • Since it has been tested only with gfortran and ifort, if some other compiler behaves differently regarding .mod and .smod files, the script needs to be adapted. • The way our Makefile works, it may cause trouble if you use files with blank spaces in them. If we name our script makedepf08.awk, then a complete Makefile that compiles all sources in all subdirectories of a Fortran project is: ## Copyright (c) 2019 alberto Otero de la Roza <aoterodelaroza@gmail.com> ## This file is frere software; distributed under GNU/GPL version 3. FC:=gfortran FCSYNTAX:=-fsyntax-only FCMODDIR:=-J MODDIR:=.mod #### user input ends here #### ## some tricks for text manipulation null:= space:=(null) (null) (space):=(space) define \n endef ## no implicit rules .SUFFIXES: ## auxiliary programs AWK:=awk SED:=sed RM:=rm -f MKDIR:=mkdir -p TEST:=test ## known fortran extensions FORTEXT:=f F fpp FPP for FOR ftn FTN f90 F90 f95 F95 f03 F03 f08 F08 ## locate the source files SOURCES:=(shell find . -regextype posix-awk -regex '.*\.((subst ( ),|,(FORTEXT)))$$')

## compilation and syntax-compilation commands
COMPILE.f08 = $(FC)$(FCFLAGS) $(TARGET_ARCH) -c MAKEMOD.f08 =$(FC) $(FCFLAGS)$(TARGET_ARCH) $(FCSYNTAX) -c ## create the mod and smod directory; define slashed version of MODDIR ifneq ($(MODDIR),)
$(shell$(TEST) -d $(MODDIR) ||$(MKDIR) -p $(MODDIR)) MODDIRSLSH:=$(MODDIR)/
else
MODDIRSLSH:=./
endif

## create the temporary mod and smod directory
ifneq ($(FCMODREADDIR),) MODDIRTMP:=.tmp$(MODDIR)
$(shell$(TEST) -d $(MODDIRTMP) ||$(MKDIR) -p $(MODDIRTMP)) MAKEMOD.f08+=$(FCMODDIR) $(MODDIR) COMPILE.f08+=$(FCMODREADDIR) $(MODDIR)$(FCMODDIR) $(MODDIRTMP) else MAKEMOD.f08+=$(FCMODDIR) $(MODDIR) COMPILE.f08+=$(FCMODDIR) $(MODDIR) endif ## define the anchors and the objects variables #$(call source-to-extension,source-file-list,new-extension)
define source-to-extension
$(strip \$(foreach ext,$(FORTEXT),\$(subst .$(ext),.$2,$(filter %.$(ext),$1)))) endef OBJECTS:=$(call source-to-extension,$(SOURCES),o) ANCHORS:=$(call source-to-extension,$(SOURCES),anc) ## default target, main and clean targets all: main main:$(OBJECTS)
$(FC) -o$@ $+ .PHONY: clean clean: -$(RM) *.mod *.smod $(OBJECTS)$(ANCHORS) main
-$(TEST) -d$(MODDIR) && $(RM) -r$(MODDIR)
-$(TEST) -d$(MODDIRTMP) && $(RM) -r$(MODDIRTMP)

## syntax-only compilation rule: all anchor files depend on their source
# $(call modsource-pattern-rule,extension) define modsource-pattern-rule %.anc: %.$1
$$(MAKEMOD.f08)$$<
@touch @
endef
$(foreach ext,$(FORTEXT),$(eval$(call modsource-pattern-rule,$(ext)))) ## compilation rule: objects depend on their anchor file %.o: %.anc$(COMPILE.f08) $(OUTPUT_OPTION)$(wildcard $(addprefix$*.,$(FORTEXT))) ifdef MODDIRTMP -@$(RM) $(MODDIRTMP)/*.mod$(MODDIRTMP)/*.smod
endif
@touch $@ ## automatically generate the dependency rules$(eval $(subst$( ),$(\n),$(shell $(AWK) --traditional -f makedepf08.awk$(SOURCES) | sort | uniq | $(SED) -e 's!^.mod/!$(MODDIRSLSH)!' -e 's!:.mod/!:\$(MODDIRSLSH)!')))


A workaround the caveat mentioned above about a possible race condition with ifort is not shown here but it is implemented in the package files below. This should solve the problem of writing Makefiles for modern Fortran projects, at least for some time.

Dependency generator: makedepf08.awk

Makefile template: Makefile

Example package: example-final.tar.xz.